In the 30 years since those first AIDS case reports, nearly 30 million people have succumbed to AIDS-related illnesses around the world. It has become one of the deadliest epidemics in human history, making it one of the leading causes of death. Currently more than 34 million people are living with HIV around the world as per the recent report from UNAIDS 2012. The fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic is currently facing major challenges in achieving goals of “prevention and cure”. Hence, there is a need for understanding scientific aspects on HIV/AIDS and recent developments in this ever advancing field.