Transient nutritional exposures during critical developmental periods can induce permanent alterations in epigenetic regulation which program metabolic and other biological networks, with lifelong consequences. During other life stages nutrition can dynamically regulate epigenetic processes. There is increasing evidence that gene-nutrient interactions underlie susceptibility to various human diseases, through mechanisms that include interindividual variation in epigenomic profiles. The interaction of nutrition, epigenetics, and human disease is a rapidly evolving area of research with many fundamental outstanding questions and abundant opportunities to translate basic science discoveries to clinical and public health application. A meeting that brings together leaders in human nutrition, human genetics and epigenetics, clinical and animal studies of disease pathogenesis, inborn errors of metabolism, methyl metabolism, stem cell programming, genome stability, transcription, and developmental biology will accelerate and potentially transform research in this field.